Low Carb Food List: What to Eat While on a Low Carb Diet (Low Carb Diet: A List of Low Carb Foods to Help you Lose Weight Fast and What to Eat to Lose Weight)

Low Carb Food List: What to Eat While on a Low Carb Diet (Low Carb Diet: A List of Low Carb Foods to Help you Lose Weight Fast and What to Eat to Lose Weight)

Low Carb Food List: What to Eat While on a Low Carb Diet

Do you know how many carbs are in the foods you eat? Have you been trying to lose weight, but can’t? Have you been counting how many carbs you have been eating? Are you ready to start a low-carb diet? If so, I can help…

In my newest book “Low Carb Food List: What to Eat While on a Low Carb Diet,” I give you tips on how to:

Lose weight on a low-carb dietCount carbs in each proteinCount carbs in each vegetabl


GET MORE INFORMATION CLICK HERE

Low Carb Food List: What to Eat While on a Low Carb Diet (Low Carb Diet: A List of Low Carb Foods to Help you Lose Weight Fast and What to Eat to Lose Weight)

Share

Food fads: Navigate trends, ingredient lists to choose pet best diet

Food fads: Navigate trends, ingredient lists to choose pet best diet
Recently, marketing has become such a factor that even companies making balanced, nutritionally driven foods have had to list a whole meat as the first ingredient. This still has no bearing on the quality of the food, but because consumers have been …
Read more on Colorado Springs Gazette

Lose 10 pounds this month with Joy Bauer's grocery list, meal plan
Looking to lose weight but don't have a lot of time to plan out meals? We've got you covered! As part of this month's #StartTODAY series to help you revamp your life in 2015, I've created a simple 30-item shopping list you can take to the store that …
Read more on Today.com

Here Are the Only 6 Food Trends You Need to Know for 2015
Interesting reading, often hunger inducing, but with so many predictions — from so many chefs, flavor-makers, food companies, bloggers— it's hard to make sense of it all. So this year, to cut through the tsunami of food punditry, I submit a highly …
Read more on TIME

The Foods You Should Never Eat in 2015
On the flip side, there are specific foods we should stay away from in order to achieve maximum good health. Last year cheese fries, hot dogs and microwave popcorn made our list of foods to avoid at all costs. This year, The Fiscal Times asked a few …
Read more on Yahoo News

Share

Lastest Diet Food List News

Dash, TLC, Mediterranean Top List of Best Diets
Below, the top five diets (including ties) for each category on the list. Best Overall Diets. Dash. TCL. Mediterranean. Weight Watchers. Mayo Clinic. Best Weight Loss. Weight Watchers. HMR Diet. Jenny Craig. Biggest Loser. Raw Food. Easiest to Follow.
Read more on ABC News

In search of a personalised diet
Constant cravers always want to eat and their "hungry brains" often want fatty and sugary foods. Scientists know certain genes make people … and can increase a desire for unhealthy foods. Recognise this and make shopping lists when you are not hungry.
Read more on BBC News

The 52 New Foods Challenge: 2015's Best New Year's Resolution
To make things easier for the rest of us, Tyler Lee's book contains a suggested starting list of 52 new foods, as well as several simple, family-friendly recipes for each food on her list. If the list doesn't resonate with you, consider it a starting …
Read more on Yahoo Health

Share

Paleo Food List: Paleo Food Shopping List for the Supermarket; Diet Grocery list of Vegetables, Meats, Fruits & Pantry Foods (Paleo Diet: Paleo Diet … The Caveman Diet Food List Guide) (Volume 2)

Paleo Food List: Paleo Food Shopping List for the Supermarket; Diet Grocery list of Vegetables, Meats, Fruits & Pantry Foods (Paleo Diet: Paleo Diet … The Caveman Diet Food List Guide) (Volume 2)

This Paleo food shopping list gives you easy access to the Paleo diet list quickly. Standing in the shopping aisle not sure what Paleo groceries to put in your trolley can be frustrating and a time waster. This caveman diet food list will also tell you what you can and can’t eat on the Paleo diet. We’ll go through what’s allowed, what’s not allowed and what can be eaten in moderation. The list of foods is broken into sections of Paleo meats, vegetables, fruits, nuts, oils, spices, herbs, p


GET MORE INFORMATION CLICK HERE

Paleo Food List: Paleo Food Shopping List for the Supermarket; Diet Grocery list of Vegetables, Meats, Fruits & Pantry Foods (Paleo Diet: Paleo Diet … The Caveman Diet Food List Guide) (Volume 2)

Share

What’s for Dinner! – Smash

A few nice diet food list images I found:

What’s for Dinner! – Smash
diet food list

Image by brizzle born and bred
Smash is a brand of instant mashed potato in the United Kingdom. The preparation of Smash is extremely simple – the granules are placed in a bowl and boiling water is added and stirred producing a mashed potato substitute.

Launched in the UK by Cadbury (then best known as a manufacturer of confectionery) in the 1960s, Smash was reasonably successful. However, it was not until 1974 that Smash became popular in the convenience food market after Cadbury launched an advertising campaign by agency Boase Massimi Pollitt featuring the now famous Smash Martians, who would watch humans preparing mashed potato the traditional way on television instead of using potato granules.

The catchphrase ‘For Mash Get Smash’ is still a memorable advertising image within the UK.

The 1970s adverts were voted TV ad of the century by Campaign Magazine, and 2nd best television advert of all time in a 2000 poll conducted by The Sunday Times and Channel 4.

The space theme was appropriate: not only did Cadbury’s launch Smash onto an unsuspecting public in 1969, but that year also saw the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, as well as Concorde’s first flight. Yet, Smash was not an innovation; the dried potato market was established five years earlier. Cadbury’s rivals Mars had got in there first with their Yeoman and Dine brands, and later with Wondermash flakes.

Within two years, Smash had gained a 55% share of this market, and had established itself as one of the key brands in the rapidly growing Cadbury Schweppes portfolio. By 1977, the firm was producing not only chocolate (Bournville, Flake, Fry’s Turkish Delight), but biscuits, cakes, Ty-phoo tea, Hartley’s jams, Chivers’ jellies, Kenco coffee, Dubonnet, soft drinks such as Cresta, Pepsi-Cola, 7-up and Kia-Ora, and even disinfectants like Jeyes Fluid, Sanilav and Bloo.

Buoyed by the 1970s Martian TV ads, Smash remained a top seller, despite instant mash being to many people a poor substitute for the real thing. It was fairly bland and insipid, lacked the texture of real potato, and adding too much liquid made it into a sloppy, watery mush. However, you could disguise it to some degree by adding a little cream, or some chopped chives.

The only real threat to Smash’s profitability was something entirely out of Cadbury’s control. A drought in 1975 led to a poor potato harvest, around 40% below expectations. Prices rocketed, and many customers would have sought out and discovered the exotic alternatives of rice and pasta. The humble spud was beginning to lose its stranglehold over the UK’s staple diet.

By the mid-1980s, Smash had gradually drifted out of fashion, a victim of TV cookery shows and the celebrity chef culture. It joined a long list of convenience foods at the back of the larder. In 1986, a management buyout created the company Premier Brands, which took over the ailing Ty-phoo, Chivers, Hartley’s and Smash. As Premier Foods, it is today the UK’s largest food producer, having acquired other nostalgia brands such as Bird’s, Fray Bentos, Hovis, Bisto and Mr Kipling. Smash can live out its declining years in the company of old friends.

The brand has since been sold by Cadbury and is now owned by Premier Foods who launched a ‘healthier recipe’ version in 2006.

Smash continues to be popular in the UK, selling 140 million servings a year.

The texture of Smash is not identical to that of real mashed potato, being somewhat smoother.

The Martian adverts used in the 70s were voted no.1 in the ‘ITV Top 50 adverts ever’ In recent years, flavoured varieties of Smash have also been made available, including Cheddar & Onion and Buttery.

See Video Below

www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKt-KR1TsRg

Visita do Lobo-Guará – Visit of the the Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).
diet food list

Image by de Paula FJ
By B. F. Tarc.

Lobo-Guará

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Genus: Chrysocyon
C. E. H. Smith, 1839
Species: C. brachyurus
Binomial name: Chrysocyon brachyurus
(Illiger, 1815)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

O lobo-guará, guará ou lobo vermelho (Chrysocyon brachyurus) é o maior mamífero canídeo nativo da América do Sul. A sua distribuição geográfica estende-se pelo sul do Brasil, Paraguai, Peru e Bolívia a leste dos Andes, estando extinto no Uruguai e talvez na Argentina, e é considerado como uma espécie ameaçada. Os biomas de ocorrência no Brasil são: Cerrado, Pantanal, Campos do Sul, parte da Caatinga e Mata Atlântica.
O lobo-guará mede até cerca de 1 metro no ombro e pesa entre 20 e 25 kg. A sua pelagem característica é avermelhada por todo o corpo, excepto no pescoço, patas e ponta da cauda que são de cor preta. Ao contrário dos lobos, esta espécie não forma alcatéias e tem hábitos solitários, juntando-se apenas em casais durante a época de reprodução.
Reprodução
A gestação dura em média 67 dias e resulta em ninhadas de até seis crias. O lobo-guará caça preferencialmente de noite e ataca pequenos mamíferos roedores e e aves, mas a sua dieta tem uma forte componente omnívora. Estes animais são bastante dependentes da lobeira (Solanum lycocarpum) e estabelecem com esta planta uma relação simbiótica: sem os frutos da lobeira o lobo-guará morre de complicações renais causadas por nemátodos, e em contrapartida tem um papel fundamental na dispersão das sementes desta planta.

A espécie não está directamente ligada a nenhum outro género de canídeos e aparentemente é uma relíquia da fauna plistocénica da América do Sul, que desapareceu na maioria após a formação do Istmo do Panamá.
Riscos de Extinção
Embora não se enquadre na categoria crítica da IUCN, corre alto risco de extinção na natureza a médio prazo, em função do declínio populacional e da extrema fragmentação da área de ocupação. O tamanho populacional está se reduzindo, com probabilidade de extinção na natureza em 100 anos. As principais ameaças ao lobo-guará vêm da conversão de terras para agricultura, do fato de ser suscetível a doenças de cães domésticos, que competem com eles por alimento, e de acidentes como atropelamentos em estradas.
The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a big fox with reddish fur.

This mammal is found in open and semi-open habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south-eastern Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás and São Paulo), Paraguay, northern Argentina, Bolivia east and north of the Andes, and far south-eastern Peru (Pampas del Heath only). It formerly occurred in Uruguay. IUCN lists it as near threatened, while it is considered vulnerable by the Brazilian government (IBAMA). It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon.
The Maned Wolf has often been described as "a Red Fox on stilts" due to its similar coloration and overall appearance, though it is much larger than a Red Fox and belongs to a different genus. The adult animal stands almost 1 m (3 ft) tall at the shoulder, and weighs 20 to 25 kg. (50 to 55 lb). The long legs are probably an adaptation to the tall grasslands of its native habitat.

The Maned Wolf’s fur is reddish brown to golden orange on the sides, with long, black legs and a distinctive black mane. The coat is further marked with a whitish tuft at the tip of the tail and a white "bib" beneath the throat. The mane is erectile, and is typically used to enlarge the wolf’s profile when threatened or when displaying aggression.
Habits
Hunting and territoriality
Unlike other large canids (such as the Gray Wolf, the African Hunting Dog, or the Dhole) the Maned Wolf does not form packs. It hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight. It kills its prey by biting on the neck or back, and shaking it violently if necessary.[Monogamous pairs may defend a shared territory of about 30 km² (11.6 sq mi), though the wolves themselves may seldom meet, outside of mating. The territory is crisscrossed by paths that the wolves create as they patrol at night. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source; a fire-cleared patch of grassland, for example, which would leave small vertebrate prey exposed to foraging wolves.

Both male and female Maned Wolves use their urine to communicate, e.g. to mark their hunting paths, or the places where they have buried hunted prey. The urine has a very distinctive smell, which some people liken to hops or cannabis. The responsible substance is very likely a pyrazine, which occurs in both plants. (In the Rotterdam Zoo, this smell once set the police on a hunt for cannabis smokers.

Reproduction
Maned wolves have long legsThe mating season ranges from November to February. Gestation lasts 60 to 65 days, and a litter may have up to 2 to 6 black-furred pups, each weighing about 450 g (16 oz).

Diet
The Maned Wolf specializes in small and medium-sized prey, including small mammals (typically rodents and hares), birds, and even fish.A large fraction of its diet (over 50%, according to some studies) is vegetable matter, including sugarcane, tubers, and fruit (especially the Wolf Apple (Solanum lycocarpum). Captive Maned Wolves were traditionally fed meat-heavy diets and developed bladder stones. Zoo diets now feature fruits and vegetables, as well as meat and dog chow.

Fazenda do Lobo, localizada na Região Sudeste do Brasil, no Estado de Minas Gerais, é uma propriedade privada dedicada, exclusivamente, à preservação ambiental, da fauna e da flora, estando em constante plantio da flora natural, que atraem animais e pássaros, das mais variadas espécies (lobos, raposas, felinos, aves de rapina, tucanos e muitas outras aves), que crescem em número a cada novo ano.
Localizada em uma linda região montanhosa, a Fazenda do Lobo, possui um grande número de nascentes, sendo cortada por pequenos e perenes riachos, de água corrente e límpida, cuidadosamente preservados. Distando, quilômetros, dos grandes centros urbanos, o céu, à noite, é como um negro tapete de estrelas, cujo silêncio só é interrompido pelo uivar dos lobos e pelos misteriosos arrulhares das corujas. Um paraíso na terra.

O Estado de Minas Gerais está localizado no Sudeste do Brasil, fazendo divisa com os Estados de São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul e Distrito Federal. Possui uma área de 588.384 quilômetros quadrados, dos quais 5.030 são ocupados por lagos e rios. Minas possui 16 bacias fluviais. A altitude média do Estado é de aproximadamente 700 metros (9% das terras apresentam altitudes superiores a mil metros, com montanhas entre 1,5 mil e 2,9 mil metros). A temperatura varia em torno de 18ºC, com médias de 9ºC no Sul e máximas de 33ºC no norte do Estado. CLIMA: tropical Brasil Central (tropical de altitude com temperaturas médias anuais inferiores a 20ºC na maior parte do estado.

The Farm of the Wolf, located in the Southeastern Region of Brazil, in the State of Minas Gerais, is a private property dedicated, exclusively, to the ambient preservation, of the fauna and the flora, being in constant plantation of the natural flora, that attract animals and birds, of the most varied species (wolves, foxes, felinos, birds of robbery, toucans and many other birds), that they grow, in number, to each new year. Hunting and fishing are forbidden. Located in a pretty highland, the Farm of the Wolf, possesss a great number of springs, being cut by small perennial streams, of current and limpid water, carefully preserved. Distant, kilometers, of the great urban centers, the sky, at night, is like a black carpet of stars, whose silence alone is interrupted by the howling of the wolves and the mysterious sounds of the owls. A paradise in the land.

The State of Minas Gerais is located in the Southeast of Brazil, having made verge with the States of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso of the South and Federal District. It possesss an area of 588.384 kilometers squared, of which 5,030 are busy for lakes and rivers. Minas Gerais possess 16 fluvial basins. The average altitude of the State is of approximately 700 meters (9% of lands present superior altitudes the 1 thousand meters, with mountains between 1,5 thousand and 2,9 thousand meters). The temperature varies around 18ºC, with averages of 9ºC in the South and principles of 33ºC in the north of the State. CLIMATE: tropical Central Brazil (tropical of altitude with average temperatures annual inferiors 20ºC for the most part of the state.

Flower of Sesbania sesban and a Lady bird beetle….Hoa Điên Điển, Điền thanh thân tía, Điền thanh bụi và con bọ Rùa …
diet food list

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
ID of bug :
Vietnamese named : Bọ Rùa cam trơn bóng.
Common names : Ladybug, Ladybird
Scientist name : Micraspis discolor (Fabricius, 1798)
Synonyms :
Family : Coccinellidae.

Links :

**** docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:mlhM6SpGhcMJ:thuvi…
**** www.angelfire.com/bug2/j_poorani/ladybirds.htm
**** www.flickr.com/search/?w=all&q=Micraspis+discolor+&am…

_________________________________________

ID of flower :
Vietnamese named : Điên Điển, Điền Thanh bụi, Điền Thanh thân tía
English names : Sesban
Scientist name : Sesbania sesban
Synonyms : Aeschynomene sesban L.
Emerus sesban (L.) Kuntze
Sesban aegyptiaca Poiret
Sesbania aegyptiaca Poiret
Sesbania confaloniana (Chiov.) Chiov.
Sesbania pubescens sensu auct

Family : Fabaceae , Leguminocae . Họ Đậu / họ phụ đậu Papillionaceae

Searched from :

**** VIETNAMTROPICALSFORAGES
vietnam.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/A_Vie…

Tên khoa học
Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.

Mô tả cây
Bụi hoặc cây ngắn đời, cao đến 8 m. Đường kính thân đến 12 cm. Lá dài 12 cm, có 6-27 đôi lá con, dài, chữ nhật, 26 mm x 5 mm. Hoa chùm, 2-20 bông, dài đến 20 cm. Quả thẳng hoặc hơi cong, to đến 20-30 cm x 2-5 mm, mầu sáng, thường nâu hoặc nâu đốm đỏ, chứa 10-14 hạt. Hạt 3-4,5 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm, xanh ô-liu hoặc nâu, thường có đốm. Trọng lượng hạt 55-80 hạt/g.

Sử dụng/Ứng dụng.
S. sesban được dùng làm phân xanh và là nguồn thức ăn xanh thu cắt. Có thể trồng xen với ngô, đậu, bông và nhiều cây trồng khác. Lá làm phân ủ rất tốt. Lá là nguồn thức ăn tốt cho bò và cừu. Đã được dùng làm cây cải tạo đất ở đất mặn nam Trung Quốc. Cho củi và làm than hoa. Được dùng làm choái sống cho tiêu, làm bóng mát cho cà phê và nghệ.
Sinh thái
Yêu cầu về đất
Mọc trên phổ đất rộng từ cát đến sét nặng. Chịu mặn (1,0% muối với cây con và 1,4% với cây trưởng thành); chịu đất kiềm và chua cũng như chịu ngập, lụt.
Độ ẩm

S. sesban xuất xứ từ vùng gió mùa, cả bán khô và bán ẩm, với lượng mưa hàng năm từ 500 đến 2.000 mm. Mọc tốt nhất ở đất ngập nước hoặc lụt kế sau là mùa khô hơn.

Nhiệt độ
S. sesban chịu lạnh ở vùng nhiệt đới cao hoặc cận nhiệt đới. Những môi trường này thường có mùa đông lạnh với nhiệt độ bình quân tháng thấp nhất khoảng 7-10oC và nhiệt độ bình quân năm khoảng 17-20ºC. Chịu băng giá nhẹ, nhưng bị chết bởi băng giá nặng.
Ánh sáng
Có khả năng chịu râm vừa phải.
Sinh sản
S. sesban sai hoa và ra hoa trong vòng 12 tháng từ khi gieo. Nó mẫn cảm với thời gian chiếu sáng, ra hoa bắt đầu khi ngày ngắn. Hạt già trong vòng 2-3 tháng.
Chăn thả/thu cắt
Thường dùng cho thu cắt. Nếu quản lý thu cắt tốt có thể tồn tại đến 5 năm. Có thể cắt khi cây cao 1-2 m. Chậm cắt đến khi cây cao >4 m và cắt sớm dưới 50 cm sẽ làm cây chết. Tốt nhất là cắt khi cây cao 75-100 cm và còn ngọn chồi. Có thể cắt 5 lần/năm tùy vào môi trường và sử dụng. Cắt thường xuyên sẽ giảm tuổi thọ của cây.
Chăn thả trực tiếp sẽ làm cho cây bị gẫy, nhưng dưới chỗ gẫy sẽ tái sinh nhanh.
Nông học
Hướng dẫn thiết lập và quản lý đồng cỏ trồng

Thiết lập đồng cỏ
Để làm hàng rào, trồng thành hàng cây cách cây 1-2 m; làm lối đi trồng hàng đơn hay hàng kép cách nhau 2-10 m, cây cách cây 25-50 cm. Để làm thức ăn xanh trồng thành hàng cách nhau 1-2 m với khoảng cách cây 25-50 cm. Không cần tẩm ủ vi khuẩn. Khả năng mọc nhanh cho phép S. sesban khắc phục được sự cạnh tranh của cỏ dại. Cần chà hạt để đạt độ nẩy mầm đồng đều, mặc dù nhiều báo cáo nói không cần.

Các giống cỏ đi kèm

Cỏ hòa thảo: Trồng thành băng với cỏ pa-ra (Brachiaria mutica ) ở Ấn độ và trong thực nghiệm với cỏ tín hiệu (Brachiaria decumbens ) ở Úc.

Giá trị làm thức ăn
Giá trị dinh dưỡng

Protein thô diễn biến 25-30% của chất khô.

Độ ngon miệng/độ chấp nhận của gia súc
Chấp nhận tốt bởi gia súc nhai lại trong hệ thống cắt cho ăn.
Tiềm năng sản xuất
Vật chất khô
S. sesban có ưu thế hơn nhiều loại thức ăn xanh dạng cây gỗ khác ở khả năng thiết lập nhanh của chúng. Đã có báo cáo nói rằng cây đạt độ cao 4-5 m trong 6 tháng sau khi trồng ở Ấn độ và cho năng suất thức ăn cao hơn 4 lần so với keo dậu trồng sau 3 tháng ở Úc. Trong điều kiện thuận lợi có thể đạt sản lượng chất khô đến 20 t/ha/năm.
Năng suất vật nuôi

S. sesban cv. Mt Cotton trồng theo băng trong đồng cỏ tín hiệu (Brachiaria decumbens) cho tăng trọng 0,70 kg/con/ngày ở bò tơ đầy năm trong giai đoạn 15 tháng. Đồng cỏ thả bò trực tiếp trong thí nghiệm này có bị gẫy và chết một số cây S. sesban. Có một số tài liệu nói gây tỉ lệ chết cao ở gia cầm.
Sản xuất hạt giống
Sản lượng hạt có thể đạt 1-2 t/ha. Rất mẫn cảm với côn trùng tấn công và không thể bảo quản lâu hơn 1 năm.
Ưu điểm
Thiết lập nhanh và sinh trưởng sớm.
Chất lượng dinh dưỡng cao với động vật nhai lại.
Chịu đất chua, ngập nước và nhiễm mặn.
Hạn chế

Đời ngắn (1-5 năm).
Kém ngon với gia súc mới tập ăn.
Yêu cầu quản lý cắt để duy trì lâu.
Gây giảm sinh sản ở con cái loài nhai lại khi bổ sung nhiều.

**** WIKI
vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90i%C3%AAn_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83n

**** KHOAHOCKYTHUATNONGNGHIEP : Dùng bè cỏ làm sạch nước sông
vndgkhktnn.vietnamgateway.org/news.php?newsid=50610086264

Xin nhấp vào link để đọc đầy đủ thông tin

…… Các loài được chọn để trồng thảm nổi là thứ dễ trồng, sống bán thủy sinh, rễ phát triển mạnh, thông thường là cỏ sậy Phragmites australis, cỏ nến Typha orientalis, và gần đây người ta đem trồng thử nghiệm cỏ vetiver, cỏ năng, cỏ bàng cùng các loài rau muống. Ở miền Nam đám trôi lục bình Eichlornia crassipe và cây điên điển Sesbania sesban cũng có khả năng lọc nước rất mạnh. Nhưng lục bình cũng như rau muống miền Bắc thường giữ lại nhiều bùn đất nơi các bộ rễ nên hiệu quả lọc nước không cao.
Trong khi đó loài cây điên điển dễ trồng trên bè bằng việc thả thân nằm ngang mọc thành nhiều bụi, rễ phát triển mạnh và thòng xuống sâu. Loài cây này thu hút rất mạnh dư lượng phân bón N ,P, K trong nước và ít nhiều giải trừ tác hại của thuốc bảo vệ thực vật, đồng thời thu hút rất nhiều tôm cá đến sinh sống và sinh sản. Điều dễ thấy là các đám điên điển ở đầu nước thải đồng ruộng đơm hoa rất nhiều phân bố quanh năm, lại là hoa ngon và ngọt giàu chất bổ dưỡng cho các bữa ăn.

**** TRUNG TÂM DỮ LIỆU THỰC VẬT VIETNAM
botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=edir&v=Sesbania%20sesban&a…
Tên Khoa học: Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.
Tên tiếng Anh:
Tên tiếng Việt: Điềng điễng; Điền thanh thân tía; muồng củi; muồng gỗ; điên điển; kiềm thanh
Tên khác: Aeschynomene sesban L.; Sesban aegyptiacus Poir.; S. aegyptiaca Pers. var. bicolor Wight & Arn.; S. aegyptiacus Pers. var. concolor Wight & Arn.; S. aegyptiacus Pers. var. picta Prain

____________________________________________

**** FAO.ORG.
www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agpc/doc/gbase/data/Pf000170.HTM

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.
Leguminosae (Papillionaceae)
Synonyms
Aeschynomene sesban L.
Emerus sesban (L.) Kuntze
Sesban aegyptiaca Poiret
Sesbania aegyptiaca Poiret
Sesbania confaloniana (Chiov.) Chiov.
Sesbania pubescens sensu auct
Author: J.M. Suttie

Common names : Sesban

Status :
The origins of S. sesban are unclear but it is widely distributed and cultivated throughout tropical Africa and Asia. Until recently, the use of perennial Sesbania species has largely been restricted to south and southeast Asia. In India, these crops have had a long history of agricultural use, primarily as green manures and as sources of forage. Most of the early research on the use of perennial Sesbania for forage production was conducted in India (Patel 1966).

Non-forage uses:

Onim et al. (1989) reported a yield of 16 t/ha of sun-dried wood from a 4 year old stand at a density of 1,600 plants/ha in Kenya while much higher yields of 63.5 t/ha were reported for S. sesban grown under rainfed conditions in Haryana, India (Singh 1989). Despite the lack of detailed information on yield, von Carlowitz (1989) pointed out that S. sesban is popular for fuelwood because it produces a high woody biomass in a short time which, though soft, is a relatively smokeless, quick, hot burning kindling. Sesbania sesban is used to a lesser extent as a green manure, probably because it is not as fast growing as the annual Sesbanias.

The dried leaves of both S. grandiflora and S. sesban are used in some countries as a tea which is considered to have antibiotic, anti-helminthic, anti-tumour and contraceptive properties.

Description
It is a short-lived shrub or small tree up to 8 m tall. Its leaves are pinnately compound, 2-18 cm long with 6-27 pairs of linear oblong leaflets (26 x 5 mm). The raceme has 2-20 flowers which are yellow with purple or brown streaks on the corolla. Pods are subcylindrical, straight or slightly curved up to 30 cm long and 5 mm wide containing 10-50 seeds. Five varieties of S. sesban are recognised botanically but their differences do not correlate strongly with their agricultural value.

Environmental adaptation

S. sesban shows some cool tolerance. It grows well in the subtropics and is significant in extending the nitrogen fixing forage trees into cooler, higher elevation regions of the tropics up to 2,000 m. (Gutteridge and Shelton 1998). It is outstanding in its ability to tolerate waterlogging and is ideally suited to seasonally waterlogged environments. When flooded, it initiates floating adventitious roots and protects its stems, roots and nodules with spongy, aerenchyma tissue. Evans and Macklin (1990) report the rainfall range of S. sesban as 500-2,000 mm. Another outstanding feature is its tolerance of both saline and alkaline soil conditions (Hansen and Munns 1985). However, its tolerance of highly acid, aluminium saturated soils is not known.

Cultivation and management
It is established from seed. Seeds of S. sesban have a hard seed coat and scarification is recommended to ensure uniform seed germination. Domergues et al (1998) recommend inoculation with the appropriate strain of Sinorhizobium teranga when the natural rhizobial population is inadequate.

One of the major advantages of perennial Sesbania species over other forage trees and shrubs is their rapid early growth rates. Dutt et al. (1983) reported that S. sesban attained a height of 4-5 m in 6 months in India. More research is required to determine appropriate management systems to maximise yields of edible material. More studies on the effects of direct grazing in extensive feeding systems are also warranted, for S. sesban, to determine the effects of grazing on plant longevity.

Seed production
Sesbania spp. are pollinated by bees, except for large-flowered species such as S. grandiflora which appear to be pollinated by birds (Brewbaker 1990). Seed collection from most of the perennial sesbanias is easy and large quantities of seed can be rapidly hand harvested and processed.

Crop use and grazing management
Cutting management has a very important influence on its productivity, S. sesban thrives under repeated cutting and coppices readily with many branches arising from the main stem below cutting height. Cutting frequencies have generally been in the order of three or four cuts yearly but up to eight cuts per year have been taken in some. Yields have ranged from 4 to 12 t dry matter/ha/year depending upon location.

Composition
Most reports indicate that the crude protein content of both S. sesban and S. grandiflora foliage is generally greater than 20% and often above 25%. Dry matter digestibility of Sesbania species is superior to that of most other tree and shrub legumes. In northeast Thailand, Akkasaeng et al. (1989) found that the in vitro dry matter digestibility of S. sesban and S. sesban var. nubica was 75 and 66% respectively, all higher than that of 15 other tree legumes that were tested.

It appears that the most economically efficient and safest use of perennial Sesbania forage for ruminants is as a protein supplement to low quality roughages such as crop residues or dried grasses. This dilutes the effects of anti-nutritive factors and greatly improves the utilisation of the roughages.

It appears that the use of the perennial Sesbania species should be restricted to ruminants because of the deleterious effects often observed when they are used as feed sources for monogastrics. However, even with ruminants, there may be adverse effects on animal productivity and health when Sesbania comprises a high proportion of diets for long periods. Research is required to determine whether anti-nutritive factors are present in Sesbania forage and whether they can be controlled or reduced by management practices.

Chemical composition S. sesban (% dry matter).

Onim et al. (1987) speculated that the perennial Sesbania species could fix up to 600 kg N/ha/year. They felt this was possible because Sesbania roots are readily infected by the less specific cowpea types of Rhizobium giving large numbers of active nodules. Under experimental conditions they reported a total nitrogen yield of 448 kg N/ha from the aerial biomass of S. sesban var. nubica.

Crop improvement

No work noted.

Pests and diseases
The crop seems to be relatively pest free.

**** PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS
www.stuartxchange.org/Sesban.html

**** TROPICALFORAGE ( PICTURES )
www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Sesbania_…

Share

Cool Diet Food List images

Some cool diet food list images:

With apologies to the Ten Cent Chef
diet food list

Image by timmycorkery
One of my favorite food blogs is Lori Andrews’ Ten cent Diet (Ms. Andrews, as some of you know, is on flickr as the 10 cent designer). Pulling up Google Reader with my coffee this morning, I came across her easy recipe for an egg. Since it looked delicious, as all her recipes do, I went directly to the kitchen to try it. Unfortunately, of the listed ingredients, I had… um… an egg. Determined at that point for a ramekined egg, I chopped up half of a leftover Yukon Gold, the rest of a Walla Walla Sweet, and threw in some homemade salsa, some cumin, some curry, and some chili powder. When it was nice and soft, I put some in a ramekin, put my only egg on top with a couple more glops of salsa and a piece of butter, sprinkled some paprika over the top, and shoved it into the toaster oven.

Delicious. Not really even very close to the recipe, but delicious nonetheless.

Pecan , Carya illinoinensis ….#9
diet food list

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on June 11, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Vietnamese named : Dẻ, Mạy Châu, Hồ Đào .
Common names : Pecan
Scientist name : Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch
Synonyms : Carya oliviformis (Michx. f.) Nutt.
Carya pecan (Marsh.) Engl. & Graebn.
Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britton
Family : Juglandaceae – Walnut family
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Hamamelididae
Order: Juglandales
Genus: Carya Nutt. – hickory
Species: Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch – pecan

**** www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=edir&v=Juglandaceae&am… : NÓI VỀ HỌ ỐC CHÓ
Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth 1824

Cây to thường vỏ nứt dọc. Lá kép lông chim lẻ 1 lần, không có lá kèm.

Cụm hoa đơn tính dạng đuôi sóc. Hoa đơn tính với các hoa cái có các lá hoa phát triển dạng lá nguyên xẻ 3 thuỳ. Hoa cái có bầu dưới, 1 ô, 1 noãn , vòi dính gốc vòi 2 – 4 cành.

Quả hạch khi chín nứt thành 3 – 4 mảnh hay quả bế có cánh

Thế giới có 8 chi, 70 loài, phân bố ở Chủ yếu là ôn đới và á nhiệt đới, bắc bán cầu, ít ở nhiệt đới và ôn đới Nam Mỹ.

Việt Nam có 6 chi, 10 loài.

Phân loại: Họ được chia làm 2 phân họ: Juglandoideae có 2 chi: Juglans và Carya và Oreomunneoideae có 6 chi: Pterocarya, Engelhardtia, Oreomunea, Platicarya, Alfaroa. Mối quan hệ của họ này chưa rõ ràng, một số cho rằng nó có quan hệ với họ Bồ hòn. Nó xuất phát từ họ Rhoipteleaceae, một họ đặc hữu của bắc Việt Nam và nam Trung Hoa. Nó phân biệt với Juglandaceae bởi hoa lưỡng tính và hoa cái, bầu trên, có lá kèm và quả có cánh.

Công dụng: Ăn quả (Juglans regia), lấy tinh dầu, lấy gỗ và làm cảnh.

____________________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=cail2
**** www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=2266
**** www.floridata.com/ref/c/cary_ill.cfm
**** www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=110601-6044&o=plants
**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Carya+illinoinensis

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pecan
The pecan ( /pɨˈkɑːn/, /pɨˈkæn/, or /ˈpiːkæn/), Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz,[1][2] in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana east to western Kentucky, southwestern Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, and western Tennessee, south through Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Florida, and west into New Mexico.
"Pecan" is from an Algonquian word, meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack

Growth
The pecan tree is a large deciduous tree, growing to 20–40 m (66–130 ft) in height, rarely to 44 m (144 ft);[2] taller trees to 50–55 m (160–180 ft) have been claimed but not verified. It typically has a spread of 12–23 m (39–75 ft) with a trunk up to 2 m (6.6 ft) diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, 30–45 cm (12–18 in) long, and pinnate with 9–17 leaflets, each leaflet 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–6 cm (0.79–2.4 in) broad. The flowers are wind-pollinated, and monoecious, with staminate and pistillate catkins on the same tree; the male catkins are pendulous, up to 18 cm (7.1 in) long; the female catkins are small, with three to six flowers clustered together.

Male catkins in spring
A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk. The husks are produced from the exocarp tissue of the flower, while the part known as the nut develops from the endocarp and contains the seed. The nut itself is dark brown, oval to oblong, 2.6–6 cm (1.0–2.4 in) long and 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.2 in) broad. The outer husk is 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) thick, starts out green and turns brown at maturity, at which time it splits off in four sections to release the thin-shelled nut.[2][4][5][6]
The nuts of the pecan are edible, with a rich, buttery flavor. They can be eaten fresh or used in cooking, particularly in sweet desserts, but also in some savory dishes. One of the most common desserts with the pecan as a central ingredient is the pecan pie, a traditional southern U.S. recipe. Pecans are also a major ingredient in praline candy, most often associated with New Orleans.
In addition to the pecan nut, the wood is also used in making furniture and wood flooring, as well as flavoring fuel for smoking meats.

Cultivation

Pecans with and without shells

A large pecan tree in downtown Abilene, Texas
Pecans were one of the most recently domesticated major crops. Although wild pecans were well-known among the colonial Americans as a delicacy, the commercial growing of pecans in the United States did not begin until the 1880s.[8] Today, the U.S. produces between 80% and 95% of the world’s pecans, with an annual crop of 150–200 thousand tons [9] from more than 10 million trees.[10] The nut harvest for growers is typically around mid-October. Historically, the leading pecan-producing state in the U.S. has been Georgia, followed by Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma; they are also grown in Arizona, South Carolina and Hawaii. Outside the United States, pecans are grown in Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Mexico, Peru and South Africa. They can be grown approximately from USDA hardiness zones 5 to 9, provided summers are also hot and humid.
Pecan trees may live and bear edible nuts for more than 300 years. They are mostly self-incompatible, because most cultivars, being clones derived from wild trees, show incomplete dichogamy. Generally, two or more trees of different cultivars must be present to pollinate each other.

Choosing cultivars can be a complex practice, based on the Alternate Bearing Index and their period of pollinating. Commercial planters are most concerned with the Alternate Bearing Index, which describes a cultivar’s likelihood to bear on an alternating years (index of 1.0 signifies highest likelihood of bearing little to nothing every other year).[11] The period of pollination groups all cultivars into two families: those that shed pollen before they can receive pollen (protandrous), and those that shed pollen after becoming receptive to pollen (protogynous).[12] Planting cultivars from both families within 250 feet is recommended for proper pollination.

Diseases
Main article: List of pecan diseases
In the southeastern United States, nickel deficiency in C. Illinoinensis produces a disorder called mouse-ear in trees fertilized with urea.[13] An enzyme within the leaves uses nickel during the conversion of urea to ammonia, and a deficiency results in the toxic accumulation of urea. Symptoms of mouse-ear include rounded or blunt leaflet tips which produces smaller leaflets, dwarfing of tree organs, poorly developed root systems, rosetting, delayed bud break, loss of apical dominance, and necrosis of leaflet tips. Mouse-ear can be treated with foliar sprays of nickel.
A similar condition results from a zinc deficiency, which also can be treated by foliar sprays

Nutrition
Pecans
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,889 kJ (690 kcal)
Carbohydrates13.86
- Starch0.46
- Sugars3.97
- Dietary fiber9.6
Fat71.97
- saturated6.18
- monounsaturated40.801
- polyunsaturated21.614
Protein9.17
Water3.52
Vitamin A56 IU
- beta-carotene29 μg (0%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin17 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.66 mg (57%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2).13 mg (11%)
Niacin (vit. B3)1.167 mg (8%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.863 mg (17%)
Vitamin B60.21 mg (16%)
Folate (vit. B9)22 μg (6%)
Vitamin C1.1 mg (1%)
Vitamin E1.4 mg (9%)
Vitamin K3.5 μg (3%)
Calcium70 mg (7%)
Iron2.53 mg (19%)
Magnesium121 mg (34%)
Manganese4.5 mg (214%)
Phosphorus277 mg (40%)
Potassium410 mg (9%)
Sodium0 mg (0%)
Zinc4.53 mg (48%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pecans are a good source of protein and unsaturated fats. Like walnuts (which pecans resemble), pecans are rich in omega-6 fatty acids, although pecans contain about half as much omega-6 as walnuts.
A diet rich in nuts can lower the risk of gallstones in women. The antioxidants and plant sterols found in pecans reduce high cholesterol by reducing the "bad" LDL cholesterol levels.
Clinical research published in the Journal of Nutrition (September 2001) found that eating about a handful of pecans each day may help lower cholesterol levels similar to what is often seen with cholesterol-lowering medications.[19] Research conducted at the University of Georgia has also confirmed that pecans contain plant sterols, which are known for their cholesterol-lowering ability.[20] Pecans may also play a role in neurological health. Eating pecans daily may delay age-related muscle nerve degeneration, according to a study conducted at the University of Massachusetts and published in Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research.
The Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company from Kiln, Mississippi has produced a variety of beer using pecans rather than hops.

Evolutionary development
The pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is a member of the Juglandaceae family. Juglandaceae are represented worldwide by between seven and 10 extant genera and more than 60 species. Most of these species are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere of the New World, but can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. The first fossil examples of the family appear during the Cretaceous. Differentiation between the subfamilies of Engelhardioideae and Juglandioideae occurred during the early Paleogene, about 64 million years ago. Extant examples of Engelharioideae are generally tropical and evergreen, while those of Juglandioideae are deciduous and found in more temperate zones. The second major step in the development of the pecan was a change from wind-dispersed fruits to animal dispersion. This dispersal strategy coincides with the development of a husk around the fruit and a drastic change in the relative concentrations of fatty acids. The ratio of oleic to linoleic acids are inverted between wind- and animal-dispersed seeds.[22][23] Further differentiation from other species of Juglandaceae occurred about 44 million years ago during the Eocene. The fruits of the pecan genus Carya differ from those of the walnut genus Juglans only in the formation of the husk of the fruit. The husks of walnuts develop from the bracts, bracteoles, and sepals, or sepals only. The husks of pecans develop from the bracts and the bracteoles only

History
Before European settlement, pecans were widely consumed and traded by Native Americans. As a food source, pecans are a natural choice for preagricultural society. They can provide two to five times more calories per unit weight than wild game, and require no preparation. As a wild forage, the fruit of the previous growing season are commonly still edible when found on the ground. Hollow tree trunks, found in abundance in pecan stands, offer ideal storage of pecans by humans and squirrels alike.[10]
Pecans first became known to Europeans in the 16th century. The first Europeans to come into contact with pecans were Spanish explorers in what is now Mexico, Texas, and Louisiana. The genus Carya does not exist in the Old World. Because of their familiarity with the genus Juglans, these early explorers referred to the nuts as nogales and nueces, the Spanish terms for "walnut trees" and "fruit of the walnut." They noted the particularly thin shell and acorn-like shape of the fruit, indicating they were indeed referring to pecans.[10] The Spaniards brought the pecan into Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning in the 16th century. In 1792, William Bartram reported in his botanical book, Travels, a nut tree, Juglans exalata that some botanists today argue was the American pecan tree, but others argue was hickory, Carya ovata.[24] Pecan trees are native to the United States, and writing about the pecan tree goes back to the nation’s founders. Thomas Jefferson planted pecan trees, Carya illinoinensis (Illinois nuts), in his nut orchard at his home, Monticello, in Virginia. George Washington reported in his journal that Thomas Jefferson gave him "Illinois nuts", pecans, which George Washington then grew at Mount Vernon, his Virginia home.

Breeding and breeding programs
Active breeding and selection programs are carried out by USDA-ARS[25] with growing locations at Brownwood and College Station, Texas. While selection work has been done since the late 1800s, most acreage of pecans grown today are of older cultivars, such as ‘Stuart’, ‘Schley’, ‘Desirable’, with known flaws but also with known production potential. The long cycle time for pecan trees plus financial considerations dictate that new varieties go through an extensive vetting process before being widely planted. Numerous examples of varieties produce well in Texas, but fail in the Southeastern U.S. due to increased disease pressure. Selection programs are ongoing at the state level, with Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kansas, Florida, Missouri and others having trial plantings.
Varieties that are adapted from the southern tier of States up through some parts of Iowa and even into southern Canada are available from nurseries. Production potential drops significantly when planted further north than Tennessee. Most breeding efforts for northern-adapted varieties have not been on a large enough scale to significantly impact production. Varieties that are available and adapted (e.g., ‘Major’, ‘Martzahn’, ‘Witte’, ‘Greenriver’, and ‘Posey’) in zones 6 and further north are almost entirely selections from wild stands. A northern-adapted variety must be grafted onto a northern rootstock to avoid freeze damage.
The pecan is a 32-chromosome species, and can hybridize with other 32-chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ovata, Carya laciniosa, and Carya cordiformis. Most such hybrids are unproductive, though a few second-generation hybrids have potential for producing hickory-flavored nuts with pecan nut structure. Such hybrids are referred to as "hicans" to indicate their hybrid origin.

Symbolism
In 1906, Texas Governor James Stephen Hogg asked that a pecan tree be planted at his grave instead of a traditional headstone, requesting that the nuts be distributed throughout the state to make Texas a "Land of Trees".[9] His wish was carried out and this brought more attention to pecan trees. In 1919, the 36th Texas Legislature made the pecan tree the state tree of Texas.
In southeast Texas, the Texas Pecan Festival is celebrated every year. There is also an annual Pecan Festival in Colfax, Louisiana in the month of November.

Pecan , Carya illinoinensis ….#4
diet food list

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on June 11, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Vietnamese named : Dẻ, Mạy Châu, Hồ Đào .
Common names : Pecan
Scientist name : Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch
Synonyms : Carya oliviformis (Michx. f.) Nutt.
Carya pecan (Marsh.) Engl. & Graebn.
Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britton
Family : Juglandaceae – Walnut family
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Hamamelididae
Order: Juglandales
Genus: Carya Nutt. – hickory
Species: Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch – pecan

**** www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=edir&v=Juglandaceae&am… : NÓI VỀ HỌ ỐC CHÓ
Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth 1824

Cây to thường vỏ nứt dọc. Lá kép lông chim lẻ 1 lần, không có lá kèm.

Cụm hoa đơn tính dạng đuôi sóc. Hoa đơn tính với các hoa cái có các lá hoa phát triển dạng lá nguyên xẻ 3 thuỳ. Hoa cái có bầu dưới, 1 ô, 1 noãn , vòi dính gốc vòi 2 – 4 cành.

Quả hạch khi chín nứt thành 3 – 4 mảnh hay quả bế có cánh

Thế giới có 8 chi, 70 loài, phân bố ở Chủ yếu là ôn đới và á nhiệt đới, bắc bán cầu, ít ở nhiệt đới và ôn đới Nam Mỹ.

Việt Nam có 6 chi, 10 loài.

Phân loại: Họ được chia làm 2 phân họ: Juglandoideae có 2 chi: Juglans và Carya và Oreomunneoideae có 6 chi: Pterocarya, Engelhardtia, Oreomunea, Platicarya, Alfaroa. Mối quan hệ của họ này chưa rõ ràng, một số cho rằng nó có quan hệ với họ Bồ hòn. Nó xuất phát từ họ Rhoipteleaceae, một họ đặc hữu của bắc Việt Nam và nam Trung Hoa. Nó phân biệt với Juglandaceae bởi hoa lưỡng tính và hoa cái, bầu trên, có lá kèm và quả có cánh.

Công dụng: Ăn quả (Juglans regia), lấy tinh dầu, lấy gỗ và làm cảnh.

____________________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=cail2
**** www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=2266
**** www.floridata.com/ref/c/cary_ill.cfm
**** www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=110601-6044&o=plants
**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Carya+illinoinensis

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pecan
The pecan ( /pɨˈkɑːn/, /pɨˈkæn/, or /ˈpiːkæn/), Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz,[1][2] in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana east to western Kentucky, southwestern Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, and western Tennessee, south through Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Florida, and west into New Mexico.
"Pecan" is from an Algonquian word, meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack

Growth
The pecan tree is a large deciduous tree, growing to 20–40 m (66–130 ft) in height, rarely to 44 m (144 ft);[2] taller trees to 50–55 m (160–180 ft) have been claimed but not verified. It typically has a spread of 12–23 m (39–75 ft) with a trunk up to 2 m (6.6 ft) diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, 30–45 cm (12–18 in) long, and pinnate with 9–17 leaflets, each leaflet 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–6 cm (0.79–2.4 in) broad. The flowers are wind-pollinated, and monoecious, with staminate and pistillate catkins on the same tree; the male catkins are pendulous, up to 18 cm (7.1 in) long; the female catkins are small, with three to six flowers clustered together.

Male catkins in spring
A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk. The husks are produced from the exocarp tissue of the flower, while the part known as the nut develops from the endocarp and contains the seed. The nut itself is dark brown, oval to oblong, 2.6–6 cm (1.0–2.4 in) long and 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.2 in) broad. The outer husk is 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) thick, starts out green and turns brown at maturity, at which time it splits off in four sections to release the thin-shelled nut.[2][4][5][6]
The nuts of the pecan are edible, with a rich, buttery flavor. They can be eaten fresh or used in cooking, particularly in sweet desserts, but also in some savory dishes. One of the most common desserts with the pecan as a central ingredient is the pecan pie, a traditional southern U.S. recipe. Pecans are also a major ingredient in praline candy, most often associated with New Orleans.
In addition to the pecan nut, the wood is also used in making furniture and wood flooring, as well as flavoring fuel for smoking meats.

Cultivation

Pecans with and without shells

A large pecan tree in downtown Abilene, Texas
Pecans were one of the most recently domesticated major crops. Although wild pecans were well-known among the colonial Americans as a delicacy, the commercial growing of pecans in the United States did not begin until the 1880s.[8] Today, the U.S. produces between 80% and 95% of the world’s pecans, with an annual crop of 150–200 thousand tons [9] from more than 10 million trees.[10] The nut harvest for growers is typically around mid-October. Historically, the leading pecan-producing state in the U.S. has been Georgia, followed by Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma; they are also grown in Arizona, South Carolina and Hawaii. Outside the United States, pecans are grown in Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Mexico, Peru and South Africa. They can be grown approximately from USDA hardiness zones 5 to 9, provided summers are also hot and humid.
Pecan trees may live and bear edible nuts for more than 300 years. They are mostly self-incompatible, because most cultivars, being clones derived from wild trees, show incomplete dichogamy. Generally, two or more trees of different cultivars must be present to pollinate each other.

Choosing cultivars can be a complex practice, based on the Alternate Bearing Index and their period of pollinating. Commercial planters are most concerned with the Alternate Bearing Index, which describes a cultivar’s likelihood to bear on an alternating years (index of 1.0 signifies highest likelihood of bearing little to nothing every other year).[11] The period of pollination groups all cultivars into two families: those that shed pollen before they can receive pollen (protandrous), and those that shed pollen after becoming receptive to pollen (protogynous).[12] Planting cultivars from both families within 250 feet is recommended for proper pollination.

Diseases
Main article: List of pecan diseases
In the southeastern United States, nickel deficiency in C. Illinoinensis produces a disorder called mouse-ear in trees fertilized with urea.[13] An enzyme within the leaves uses nickel during the conversion of urea to ammonia, and a deficiency results in the toxic accumulation of urea. Symptoms of mouse-ear include rounded or blunt leaflet tips which produces smaller leaflets, dwarfing of tree organs, poorly developed root systems, rosetting, delayed bud break, loss of apical dominance, and necrosis of leaflet tips. Mouse-ear can be treated with foliar sprays of nickel.
A similar condition results from a zinc deficiency, which also can be treated by foliar sprays

Nutrition
Pecans
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,889 kJ (690 kcal)
Carbohydrates13.86
- Starch0.46
- Sugars3.97
- Dietary fiber9.6
Fat71.97
- saturated6.18
- monounsaturated40.801
- polyunsaturated21.614
Protein9.17
Water3.52
Vitamin A56 IU
- beta-carotene29 μg (0%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin17 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.66 mg (57%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2).13 mg (11%)
Niacin (vit. B3)1.167 mg (8%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.863 mg (17%)
Vitamin B60.21 mg (16%)
Folate (vit. B9)22 μg (6%)
Vitamin C1.1 mg (1%)
Vitamin E1.4 mg (9%)
Vitamin K3.5 μg (3%)
Calcium70 mg (7%)
Iron2.53 mg (19%)
Magnesium121 mg (34%)
Manganese4.5 mg (214%)
Phosphorus277 mg (40%)
Potassium410 mg (9%)
Sodium0 mg (0%)
Zinc4.53 mg (48%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pecans are a good source of protein and unsaturated fats. Like walnuts (which pecans resemble), pecans are rich in omega-6 fatty acids, although pecans contain about half as much omega-6 as walnuts.
A diet rich in nuts can lower the risk of gallstones in women. The antioxidants and plant sterols found in pecans reduce high cholesterol by reducing the "bad" LDL cholesterol levels.
Clinical research published in the Journal of Nutrition (September 2001) found that eating about a handful of pecans each day may help lower cholesterol levels similar to what is often seen with cholesterol-lowering medications.[19] Research conducted at the University of Georgia has also confirmed that pecans contain plant sterols, which are known for their cholesterol-lowering ability.[20] Pecans may also play a role in neurological health. Eating pecans daily may delay age-related muscle nerve degeneration, according to a study conducted at the University of Massachusetts and published in Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research.
The Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company from Kiln, Mississippi has produced a variety of beer using pecans rather than hops.

Evolutionary development
The pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is a member of the Juglandaceae family. Juglandaceae are represented worldwide by between seven and 10 extant genera and more than 60 species. Most of these species are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere of the New World, but can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. The first fossil examples of the family appear during the Cretaceous. Differentiation between the subfamilies of Engelhardioideae and Juglandioideae occurred during the early Paleogene, about 64 million years ago. Extant examples of Engelharioideae are generally tropical and evergreen, while those of Juglandioideae are deciduous and found in more temperate zones. The second major step in the development of the pecan was a change from wind-dispersed fruits to animal dispersion. This dispersal strategy coincides with the development of a husk around the fruit and a drastic change in the relative concentrations of fatty acids. The ratio of oleic to linoleic acids are inverted between wind- and animal-dispersed seeds.[22][23] Further differentiation from other species of Juglandaceae occurred about 44 million years ago during the Eocene. The fruits of the pecan genus Carya differ from those of the walnut genus Juglans only in the formation of the husk of the fruit. The husks of walnuts develop from the bracts, bracteoles, and sepals, or sepals only. The husks of pecans develop from the bracts and the bracteoles only

History
Before European settlement, pecans were widely consumed and traded by Native Americans. As a food source, pecans are a natural choice for preagricultural society. They can provide two to five times more calories per unit weight than wild game, and require no preparation. As a wild forage, the fruit of the previous growing season are commonly still edible when found on the ground. Hollow tree trunks, found in abundance in pecan stands, offer ideal storage of pecans by humans and squirrels alike.[10]
Pecans first became known to Europeans in the 16th century. The first Europeans to come into contact with pecans were Spanish explorers in what is now Mexico, Texas, and Louisiana. The genus Carya does not exist in the Old World. Because of their familiarity with the genus Juglans, these early explorers referred to the nuts as nogales and nueces, the Spanish terms for "walnut trees" and "fruit of the walnut." They noted the particularly thin shell and acorn-like shape of the fruit, indicating they were indeed referring to pecans.[10] The Spaniards brought the pecan into Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning in the 16th century. In 1792, William Bartram reported in his botanical book, Travels, a nut tree, Juglans exalata that some botanists today argue was the American pecan tree, but others argue was hickory, Carya ovata.[24] Pecan trees are native to the United States, and writing about the pecan tree goes back to the nation’s founders. Thomas Jefferson planted pecan trees, Carya illinoinensis (Illinois nuts), in his nut orchard at his home, Monticello, in Virginia. George Washington reported in his journal that Thomas Jefferson gave him "Illinois nuts", pecans, which George Washington then grew at Mount Vernon, his Virginia home.

Breeding and breeding programs
Active breeding and selection programs are carried out by USDA-ARS[25] with growing locations at Brownwood and College Station, Texas. While selection work has been done since the late 1800s, most acreage of pecans grown today are of older cultivars, such as ‘Stuart’, ‘Schley’, ‘Desirable’, with known flaws but also with known production potential. The long cycle time for pecan trees plus financial considerations dictate that new varieties go through an extensive vetting process before being widely planted. Numerous examples of varieties produce well in Texas, but fail in the Southeastern U.S. due to increased disease pressure. Selection programs are ongoing at the state level, with Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kansas, Florida, Missouri and others having trial plantings.
Varieties that are adapted from the southern tier of States up through some parts of Iowa and even into southern Canada are available from nurseries. Production potential drops significantly when planted further north than Tennessee. Most breeding efforts for northern-adapted varieties have not been on a large enough scale to significantly impact production. Varieties that are available and adapted (e.g., ‘Major’, ‘Martzahn’, ‘Witte’, ‘Greenriver’, and ‘Posey’) in zones 6 and further north are almost entirely selections from wild stands. A northern-adapted variety must be grafted onto a northern rootstock to avoid freeze damage.
The pecan is a 32-chromosome species, and can hybridize with other 32-chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ovata, Carya laciniosa, and Carya cordiformis. Most such hybrids are unproductive, though a few second-generation hybrids have potential for producing hickory-flavored nuts with pecan nut structure. Such hybrids are referred to as "hicans" to indicate their hybrid origin.

Symbolism
In 1906, Texas Governor James Stephen Hogg asked that a pecan tree be planted at his grave instead of a traditional headstone, requesting that the nuts be distributed throughout the state to make Texas a "Land of Trees".[9] His wish was carried out and this brought more attention to pecan trees. In 1919, the 36th Texas Legislature made the pecan tree the state tree of Texas.
In southeast Texas, the Texas Pecan Festival is celebrated every year. There is also an annual Pecan Festival in Colfax, Louisiana in the month of November.

Share

Grilled Frog Cooking Over Clay Kiln at Grandma’s House

Some cool diet food list images:

Grilled Frog Cooking Over Clay Kiln at Grandma’s House
diet food list

Image by Captain Kimo
captainkimo.com/grilled-frog-cooking-over-clay-kiln-at-gr…

Frog meat is part of the daily diet out in Thailand’s country side. Grandma prefers to cook her frogs over a clay kiln using coal. These frogs are caught by Grandma out in the rice fields where they can be found underground.

I like frog meat on a stick… because as we all know anything on a stick taste ten times better ;-) . Unfortunately frog meat on a strick is more commonly sold in Cambodia. I plan on visiting there in a few more days. Hopefully I can find some at the local food merchant next to my aunt’s house. I’ll be sure to post pics because I know you all want to see what frog on a stick looks like.

Go to My Profile for:
* a list of my photography gear
* a list of my tutorials
* a list of software I use
* a link to my website
* to sign up for my monthly newsletter
* add me to your Facebook

Hard Not to Get Hungry Walking Bangkok Street
diet food list

Image by Captain Kimo
captainkimo.com/hard-not-to-get-hungry-walking-bangkok-st…

Bangkok is like one big green market. Walk down any street and you see food vendors in every corner selling all sorts delicious goods. If you’re on a diet Bangkok is not the place to visit. You’ll gain a few pounds just by the smell alone.

Go to My Profile for:
* a list of my photography gear
* a list of my tutorials
* a list of software I use
* a link to my website
* to sign up for my monthly newsletter
* add me to your Facebook

Share

Nice Diet Food List photos

Some cool diet food list images:

20110506-RD-LSC-1324
diet food list

Image by USDAgov
On hot days, pigs figure out how to spray the water on the ground to make a mud wallow at Keenbell Farm, where they are pasture raised by 3rd generation farmer CJ Isbell in Rockville, VA, on Friday, May 6, 2011. The farm was established in 1951, and produces grass-fed beef, pastured pork, and free-range eggs beyond organic standards. Keenbell Farms pork products range from sausage, to bacon, pork chops, roasts, bratwurst, and many more. A majority of their diet is grass and roots. They are offered corn, soybean, minerals, and a hay mixture that was developed by the farm. Raising the pigs on pastures reduces odor problems, and avoids hazardous waste issues by distributing the manure. Pastures are rotated at least, every 90 days to allow the grass and land to re-grow. Keenbell and other farms produce meat products for Fall Line Farms food hub that offer a wide variety of household food staples and specialty items. Members can pick their customized orders from an ever changing inventory of fruits, vegetables, meats, soaps, eggs, cheeses, flowers, honey, pastas, sauces, syrups, baked goods, mushrooms, flour and grains. Suppliers post what they have to sell on Lulus Local Food online listing where customers can make their selection. Every Thursday, suppliers team up to deliver customized orders to, one of several pick-up points, designated by the customer in or around the Richmond, VA area. USDA Photo by Lance Cheung.

10.10.2012
diet food list

Image by Darth Kipsu
This meal is far from being environment- or animal-friendly, with that much cheese on it. However, it was very delicious. Leaving meat and especially fish out of my diet was not that difficult for me. If I think about which foods I like the most, meat isn’t anywhere near the top list. I don’t like strong flavoured cheese either but it would be hard for me to leave all cheese outside the diet. And if I leave rest of the animal products out, then I guess I’m allowed some cheese and (a lot of) ice cream, without needing to worry about doing too much damage to our planet.

Share